如何将 Ubuntu 升级到 18.04 (Bionic Beaver)

最新的 Ubuntu LTS 版本 Ubuntu 18.04 (Bionic Beaver) 于 2018 年 4 月 26 日发布,它会被支持 5 年,一直直到 2023 年 4 月。在本教程中,我们将向您展示如何从 Ubuntu 16.04 或更高版本升级到 Ubuntu 18.04 (Bionic Beaver) 。

先决条件

在开始本教程之前,请确保以具有 sudo 权限的用户身份登录。

备份您的数据

首先,也是最重要的一点,请一定在开始升级操作系统之前备份数据。如果您在虚拟机上运行 Ubuntu ,最好备份完整的系统快照,以便在更新失败的时候轻松恢复您的计算机。

更新当前安装的软件包

在开始版本升级之前,建议将所有当前安装的软件包更新到其最新版本。

sudo apt update
sudo apt upgrade

我们还将运行 dist-upgrade,它会执行已安装软件包的主要版本升级,并可能删除一些不必要的软件包:

sudo apt dist-upgrade

将 Ubuntu 16.04 升级到 Ubuntu 18.04

Ubuntu 提供了一个工具 do-release-upgrade ,它让升级过程非常简单。该工具应该已经安装在您的系统上,但如果由于某种原因没有安装它,您可以安装它:

sudo apt install do-release-upgrade

运行 do-release-upgrade, 开始升级:

sudo do-release-upgrade

如果您像我一样通过 SSH 升级系统,系统会询问您是否要继续。

Reading cache

Checking package manager

Continue running under SSH?

This session appears to be running under ssh. It is not recommended
to perform a upgrade over ssh currently because in case of failure it
is harder to recover.

If you continue, an additional ssh daemon will be started at port
'1022'.
Do you want to continue?

Continue [yN]
Starting additional sshd

To make recovery in case of failure easier, an additional sshd will
be started on port '1022'. If anything goes wrong with the running
ssh you can still connect to the additional one.
If you run a firewall, you may need to temporarily open this port. As
this is potentially dangerous it's not done automatically. You can
open the port with e.g.:
'iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 1022 -j ACCEPT'

To continue please press [ENTER]

升级工具完成下载软件包列表和完成计算变更内容后,将询问您是否要继续

Do you want to start the upgrade?


4 installed packages are no longer supported by Canonical. You can
still get support from the community.

3 packages are going to be removed. 90 new packages are going to be
installed. 397 packages are going to be upgraded.

You have to download a total of 267 M. This download will take about
1 minute with your connection.

Installing the upgrade can take several hours. Once the download has
finished, the process cannot be canceled.

再次键入 y,正式开始升级。

在升级过程中,您将被问到各种问题,例如您是要保留现有配置文件还是安装软件包维护者的版本。如果您没有对文件进行任何自定义更改,则应键入Y;如果要保持当前配置则输入N。

Configuration file '/etc/sysctl.conf'
==> Modified (by you or by a script) since installation.
==> Package distributor has shipped an updated version.
What would you like to do about it ? Your options are:
Y or I : install the package maintainer's version
N or O : keep your currently-installed version
D : show the differences between the versions
Z : start a shell to examine the situation
The default action is to keep your current version.
*** sysctl.conf (Y/I/N/O/D/Z) [default=N] ?

升级过程可能需要一些时间,具体取决于更新次数和网络的下载速度。

安装新软件包后,更新工具会询问您是否要删除过时的软件,如果您不确定键入 d 查看过时软件包列表,在大多数情况下,输入 y 并删除所有过时的软件包是安全的:

Searching for obsolete software
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
Reading state information... Done

Remove obsolete packages?


17 packages are going to be removed.

升级过程完成并假设一切顺利后,系统会要求您重新启动计算机。输入 y 以继续:

System upgrade is complete.

Restart required

To finish the upgrade, a restart is required.
If you select 'y' the system will be restarted.

Continue [yN] y

确认更新

等待服务器重启完成,然后重新连接。登录后,您将收到以下消息:

Welcome to Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (GNU/Linux 4.15.0-20-generic x86_64)

您还可以使用以下命令检查 Ubuntu 版本:

lsb_release -a
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description: Ubuntu 18.04 LTS
Release: 18.04
Codename: bionic

到现在为止,你现在可以享用新的 Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver) 了。